CEE-M receives significant support from the French National Research Agency (ANR), the main funder of public research and research partnerships in France.
It also benefits from the financial support of the AFB, CIFOR, FEDER, INRA, Labex Cemeb, the MUSE initiative and the french Region Occitanie.
The project aims to analyze the effects of macroeconomic policies, both monetary and fiscal, regulations related to information disclosure, and introduction of financial instruments within analytical frameworks that are based on more realistic behavioral foundations.
We will conduct research both at the individual and collective levels by combining laboratory experiments, computational experiments, and mathematical modeling, while paying a close attention to how individual decisions are aggregated into collective outcomes how collective outcomes feedback into individual decisions.
Efficient management of epidemics aims atCEE allocating efforts in the most efficient way.
The choice problem is an optimization one in which epidemics dynamics is to be accounted for as an additional constraint to the decision problem.
The key of the project is to study where to allocate effort, how to allocate it and when.
The project is an interdisciplinary one at the intersection between economics, epidemiology and phythopathology and it gathers scientists from the three disciplines and engage simultaneously two Ph.d thesis, one in economics, the other in epidemiology.
In this project, we use the introduction of the first PES-based REDD+ project ever launched in Brazil by a Non-Governmental Organization in the region of Para in 2012 as a natural experiment in order to evaluate the long-run impact of this project.
In particular, we focus on the permanence of the effects of this REDD+ project by collecting new data from the baseline sample, about three years after the PES program starts.
This study is financed and undertaken in close collaboration with the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), as part of its Global Comparative Study (GCS) on REDD+, and with the Brazilian non-governmental organization in charge of the implementation of the PES program, the Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM).
The EcoGYp project aims to study a range of issues related to the ecology and the conservation of necrophagous raptors, with a particular focus on the Bearded Vulture.
The socio-economic component of this project focuses on the identification and assessment of ecosystem services related to these species and the areas in which they reside.
The main services related to necrophagous birds of prey are on the one hand, recreational and aesthetic aspects and on the other, their ecological function as natural rendering.
The former are analysed on the basis of choice experiments, the natural rendering function being evaluated by comparison with industrial rendering from a life-cycle analysis perspective
This joint project between CEE-M and the Aix-Marseille School of Economics (AMSE) analyzes the transition process toward a greener economy by studying the potential consequences of, and reactions of our societies to, environmental changes.
The project mainly focuses on two important objects of analysis, which are emblematic of issues related to environmental changes: pollution and aquatic resources.
The analysis of these two objects are tackled by relying on three work packages (WPs): (i) the economic assessment of the environmental issues (ii) the definition of short to medium-term solutions by developing dynamic environmental regulatory instruments and (iii) the study of the society’s long term adaptation capacity to sustain an environmentally friendly development process.
The project focuses on two complementary research questions that raise different types of scientific challenges.
The first one is related to promoting forms of greener activities through the analysis of incentive mechanisms and behavioral rules to induce a sustainable use of land and natural resources.
The second one is more focused on resource scarcity and on the strategies to tackle problems of uncertainty, irreversibility and threshold effects when dealing with issues of natural resource management.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are now central actors of policy-making processes as well as initiators of public debates about the needs of environmental policies.
They play a critical role in public politics by providing people with information about the environmental state of the world, bringing social and environmental issues to public awareness, and mobilizing support for political action on these issues.
The aim of the project is to provide analysis and new insight into the economic behavior and strategies of NGOs with respect to the environment.
AAP Kim Waters, “Sea & Coast”Local adaptation at risk on the Barbary Tongue (Senegal)
For centuries, the habitat of the villagers of Guet Ndar (Senegal) is exposed to floods of the Senegal River and marine submersions. The high exposure to natural hazards (submersion, flooding) of the population suggests that its inhabitants have adapted to this unique environment, through the selection of the most suitable gene varieties. The project aims at investigating the hypothesis of local adaptation to risk for the inhabitants of Guet Ndar. Local adaptation is possible when three conditions are met: (1) the average migration distance is smaller than the size of the risky area, (2) the behavioral trait adapted to the risky environment (risk tolerance) is transmissible, and (3) living in the risky area provides material benefits that compensate for the exposure to risk. It is highly probable that these conditions are met in the village of Guet Ndar: (1) the migration rate is low, especially among the population of fishermen who pass on their inheritance (canoes, houses, …) to their descendants, (2) the targeted gene, DRD4, is endowed with exceptional variability and is transmissible and (3) the risky area gives access to fisheries resources that have historically been abundant. The risky area (Barbary tongue) is a narrow strip of land of 250 meters in its widest width that extends for about 900 meters in the populated area. Almost all the inhabitants are born there, just like their ancestors. The fishermen of Guet Ndar are renowned for their know-how, not only in Senegal but in several neighboring coastal countries, where they are often recruited to transmit their fishing techniques developed over generations. Fishermen represent the target population of our study because they are most likely to have adapted to local conditions, an adaptation that is expressed by their greater propensity to take risks compared to non-fishermen.
Coordination: Omar Sene & Marc Willinger
Research team: Gwen-Jiro Clochard (CREST, Ecole Polytechnique), Charlotte Faurie (ISEM, CNRS), Guillaume Hollard (CREST, CNRS), Clément Mettling (ISEM, CNRS), Michel Raymond (ISEM, CNRS), Omar Sene (Université Alioune Diop, Bambey , Sénégal), Marc Willinger (CEE-M, UM).
The aim of the InvaCosts programme is to characterise and quantify the worldwide impacts of invasive species following climate change.
These impacts will be considered sensu lato, including biodiversity losses, disruption of ecosystem functioning and loss of ecosystem services, economic costs (on agriculture, forestry, real estate and infrastructures) and damages to public health (sanitary impacts and associated secondary costs for the society).
This project focuses on insects, a taxonomic group of major importance for the target environmental and societal categories, and whose ectothermic nature makes them especially sensitive to climate variables.
Spatial management of biological invasions is a complex task.
This project aims at developing decision making tools in order to optimally allocate a limited budget toward the spatial management of a biological invasion.
The project develops three workpackages. The first is on spatial evaluation methods to estimate spatial benefits related to species control.
The second is on spatial evaluation methods to estimate spatial costs related to species control.
The last is on the modelling of invasion dynamics in space and time. Combining the three workpackages, the overall output of the project is a spatially explicit cost-benefit module for the management of mobile externalities.
While greater GDP per capita has often been assimilated with higher society welfare in the past, following the persuasive arguments of A.K. Sen (Commodities and Capabilities, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), it is now widely accepted among the economic profession that a person’s well-being comprises many other dimensions than income. The need for a more comprehensive approach to well-being has been reiterated by the Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission that further recommended that the distribution among the citizens of well-being and of its different components is taken into account in the computation of social welfare. The recognition of the multidimensional nature of well-being has given rise to distinct approaches among which the construction of dashboard indices and composite measures has played a prominent role. Focusing on each dimension of well-being in isolation, the dashboard approach fails to provide an overall view of the society’s performance. The Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations, that incorporates the three essential dimensions of a person’s well-being (namely, income, health and education), is a follow-up of Sen’s ideas. More recently, the Better Life Index (BLI) of the OECD has extended the scope of the HDI by introducing eight dimensions in addition to those used in the computation of the HDI.
While they represent notable advances in the measurement of the overall performance of the society and, beyond that, of the well-being of its members, both the HDI and the BLI are not exempt of deficiencies. The HDI and the BLI are aggregate indices and, as such, they do not care much of the distribution among the population of the different attributes that contribute to a person’s well-being, not to speak of the distribution of well-being in the society. By combining aggregates – one for each attribute – without paying attention to the possible associations between the different dimensions of well-being, the HDI and the BLI leave aside important determinants of a society’s welfare like the exposure and vulnerability of the individuals to various sorts of risks. Finally, by transforming heterogenous data into distributions of scores for each attribute and applying to them standard measures, the HDI and the BLI neglect the fact that the prime data are of different nature, ranging from cardinally-measurable attributes (like income) to variables involving ordered categories (like health status).
Building on the fiction of the paternalistic ethical observer, we propose to construct measures of socio-economic performance and well-being that (i) acknowledge the multidimensional nature of well-being, (ii) pay due attention to the distribution and interaction between the attributes, and (iii) take full account of the measurability nature of the attributes. These measures will make one able to provide answers to questions of interest for the policy-maker and the general public like the following:
- Q1. Can we correctly claim that our health system guarantees equal access to medical care whatever the circumstances of the individuals? Is a move in direction to the British health care system likely to reduce the inequalities of health statuses among the population?
- Q2. Does the poor performance on average of French students at the PISA tests go along with high inequalities in the distributions of the scores suggesting that the French educational system might be doubly inefficient?
To which extent inequalities – provided that there is evidence of such inequalities – in reading, mathematics and problem solving are related to the socio-economic characteristics of the parents and more generally to their origins?
- Q3. Is ex-post redistribution by means of progressive tax-benefit systems more effective in reducing the long run income inequalities than an ex-ante redistributive policy that would tax more heavily the intergenerational transmission of wealth?
In order to strike the right balance between agriculture and the environment, policymakers in both developed and developing countries are increasingly resorting to Payments for Environmental Services (PES).
PESs are contracts between a farmer and the government in which the farmer receives a payment in exchange for the adoption of greener practices. PES programs usually aim to tackle major current environmental issues but can be expensive. It is thus critical to provide credible evaluations of their effectiveness.
Yet, evidence on their impact remains scarce.
This project aims to fill this gap by using modern econometric methods, such as experimental and quasi-experimental techniques, to provide the first evidence-based evaluations ever made for a series of agri-environmental programs in France: the French program to reduce the use of pesticides, the French grassland conservation programs, two pilot programs based on nudges, one aimed at encouraging biological control in viticulture and the other to reduce the consumption of agricultural water
The international success of the recent Thomas Piketty’s book (Piketty, 2014, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Harvard University Press) is a clear indication that inequality is still continuing to be a major preoccupation throughout the World. The long run increase in wealth inequalities documented by Piketty in developed countries is reinforced by the recent sharp increases in income inequality. Nevertheless, even if we all accept that income inequality has risen, very different views exist on the attitudes the governments should adopt with respect to it. How do individuals perceive inequalities?
Do we have to consider all inequalities as unfair? In parallel to the worsening of the income and wealth inequalities, the last decades have also been characterised by increased social risks. These essentially originate in the profound changes in the labour market structure that go along with a deterioration of the unemployment rates. Hence, even if individuals are concerned with fairness considerations, it is not clear to what extent preferences for redistribution can be associated with such motives. Redistribution can be perceived as social insurance, and thus risk aversion of the individuals may came into play. The project aims at shedding new light on the preferences for redistribution, by providing a better description of people’s perceptions of inequality and social risks.
The benefits for society of the project would be to provide the social planner with implementable social decision rules which reflect
the individual preferences for redistribution, that can be used in public policy making.
Humans have colonized diverse environments so that specific genes, providing adaptation to each environment, are highly likely to have locally evolved (such as adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia). These genes provide adaptation to a local, or specific, environment through a permanent physiological change or, alternatively, a behavioural change.
Numerous genes are known to influence behaviour in experimental settings, such as alleles at the dopamine receptor locus D4 (DRD4), which is associated with attitudes toward risk.
However, direct evidence of selection acting on such genes is, to date, lacking.
Active volcanoes and their exposed populations represent unique assets in the study of the roots of such adaptation responses. The aims of this project are thus to: 1) study risk-taking people behaviour across contrasting environments, both at-risk and (almost) without risk; 2) examine the possibility of a local adaptation to risky environments; and 3) identify all relevant selected genes involved in this local adaptation.
The at-risk environments considered are flanks and surrounding plains of hazardous, active volcanoes, on which stable rural groups have developed.
The TYPOCLIM project is focused on policy instruments to facilitate agricultural adaptation to Climate Change (CC). The TYPOCLIM project aims at developing a baseline descriptive typology of policy instruments designed to facilitate agricultural adaptation to CC based on mapping of existing instruments at eight study sites in developing countries (South Africa, Senegal, Brazil and Colombia) and developed countries (Catalonia-Spain, California-USA, Occitanie-France and Guadeloupe-France) / several agricultural sectors (viticulture, horticulture – mangos – and market gardening), which in turn are subject to different climate shocks (irregular growing seasons, excessive heat, water shortages, etc.), and at assessing the different performances of public policy instruments that promote the adaptation of diversified agricultural areas to CC. By focusing specifically on policy instruments, the TYPOCLIM project will carry out interdisciplinary research—combining political science, economics, sociological, geographical, biological and agricultural analyses—to shed fresh light on existing policy instruments.
Our contribution mainly relies on the analysis of the extent to which farmers would be ready to adopt the most efficient policy instruments to cope with CC. This will involve determining farmers’ preferences with regards to the adoption of policy instruments through experimental methods.